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Modélisation, analyse et simulation du mouvement d'entrée dans des véhicules automobiles à géométrie variable : application aux mouvements d'entrée des personnes âgées et/ou ayant des déficiences motrices

Abstract : The difficulty from which suffer elderly and/or disabled people when entering or exiting an automobile vehicle can lead them to never use it again. The car manufacturers are conscious of this fact and they are more and more interested in these growing elderly and/or disabled populations prone to locomotor apparatus disorders and in this complex gesture requiring a precise coordination of the human body articular movements. An alternative to understand and predict this movement is to use the digital simulation.Works completed in this thesis fall under this context and concern the kinematic simulation of the vehicle entering movement of a humanoid (constituted of a head, a trunk, a basin and lower limbs) in variably-dimensioned vehicles by using real data resulting from the experimentation. To solve this "complex" problem, we propose a three stage methodological procedure. A first stage carries on the constitution of a base of movements that we name "exploitable" movements which are issued from the experimentation carried out on two variably-dimensioned vehicles. These "exploitable" movements are the result of digital processing applied to the measured entry movements. These processing allow, among others, to adapt the measured joint articulation angles to the humanoid in order to avoid possible collisions with the cockpit which would not have been noted during the experiments. A second stage relates to the automatically analysis and identification of the vehicle entering movement strategies. This stage proceeds in four phases and it allows the identification of 2 entry movement strategies and 6 sub–strategies. A third stage, made up of 4 phases as well, uses the assets resulting from stages 1 and 2 to simulate an entry movement of a subject of the base adopting a given sub-strategy in another vehicle of different geometry. The simulation of the entry movement of the same subject in another vehicle concerns an inverse kinematics problem solved by constrained nonlinear programming.Simulations, implying elderly and/or having prostheses people, make it possible to validate the suggested procedure for the two entry strategies. In spite of the differences with the measured movements, the simulated movements are in conformity with the sub-strategies adopted by the subjects during the experiments. Furthermore, the realized simulations make it possible to explain partly the changes of strategy operated by some subjects, during the experiments, when shifting from one vehicle to another. Finally, simulations on fictitious vehicles show the limits of the developed simulation tool. This work opens several prospects for research as well concerning the improvement of simulation, by considering for example the intra-individual differences of subjects or the dynamics of the movement, as the development of new ergonomic indices in order to consider discomfort associated with the simulated movements.
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Mohand Ouidir Ait El Menceur. Modélisation, analyse et simulation du mouvement d'entrée dans des véhicules automobiles à géométrie variable : application aux mouvements d'entrée des personnes âgées et/ou ayant des déficiences motrices. Automatique / Robotique. Université de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambrésis, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009VALE0022⟩. ⟨tel-03032961⟩

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