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Multi-scale study of the mechanical behaviour of bearing and bone-bearing bones : towards personalization of FE human models

Abstract : The human skeleton aims at participating to the locomotor system, protecting and serving as brackets for the internal organs. To ensure the mechanical stiffness of the entire body, the cortical bone can be found in every part of the skeleton. A dynamic process occurs throughout the life and is named bone remodelling. This process adapts the cortical bone architecture and the shape of bones according to their functions. Due to its complexity, bone remodelling can defect in the elderly and weakens bones. This thesis studies the bearing and non-bearing long human bones by focusing on the humerus and femur. A survey of the state of the art, detailed in the first chapter, reveals several lacks. First, the femur is widely investigated compared to the other bones and this unbalance creates a lack of data for the other bones. Therefore, inputs for numerical human models come from deprecated and contradictory studies where the extra-individual differences impact the trends. Second, architectural studies are mainly limited to in-plane assessment whereas the vascular network is complex and needs more robust analyses. Thus, the second chapter describes an innovative method to 3D assess the cortical vascular network from tomographic data. This Python script automatically detects canals, connectivity and Bone Multicellular Units (BMUs), cradle of the bone remodelling activity. Then, 77 samples from left and right femurs and humeri of ten human cadavers are scanned and analysed using this method. As this method provides numerous novel features of the cortical architecture, tensile and indentation tests are also carried out in order to understand and exhibit the impact of the architecture on the mechanical behaviour. Hence, all the scanned samples are tested and available for statistical analysis. So as to identify global trends, humerus and femur are compared using different statistical tests. Likewise, the bias impact is also investigated. Finally, a correlation study followed by a regression study is described so as to provide polynomial functions in order to be used to predict the mechanical behaviour from an architectural study.
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Xavier Roothaer. Multi-scale study of the mechanical behaviour of bearing and bone-bearing bones : towards personalization of FE human models. Mechanics [physics.med-ph]. Université Polytechnique Hauts-de-France, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019UPHF0020⟩. ⟨tel-02966979⟩

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