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Theses

La peinture à Tournai de la crise iconoclaste de 1566 à la fin du régime français en 1709

Abstract : Homeland in the fifteenth century of painters no less famous than Robert Campin, alias the Master of Flémalle, Roger de le Pasture / van der Weyden and Jacques Daret, Tournai experienced a slow artistic decline from the second half of the same century, which was to come to crown the terrible iconoclastic crisis during the summer of 1566. In the aftermath of these events, while the former southern Netherlands were to be taken over by the Spanish authorities and that the last session of the Council had just been held in 1563. Council of Trent from which the Counter-Reformation would come out, everything, in the churches which had just been systematically ransacked, had to be replaced and put back to work, altarpieces and altar decorations, ornaments and liturgical arrangements of the choirs and other places of devotion etc. The activity of painters and sculptors then resumed, initially timidly at the end of the sixteenth century, then more clearly, from the first half of the seventeenth century, in the context, favorable to the arts, of the reign of the Archdukes Albert and Isabelle, then of the governance assumed by the latter. If Tournai was then, of course, only a secondary center with regard to more important cities such as Ghent, Brussels and of course Antwerp, it did not see the less restructuring and developing again its profession of painters around two or three interesting personalities. To this surge, however, regional historiography has devoted only a few scraps. And what about the echo, so to speak non-existent all monopolized by the case of Antwerp, possibly centers like Ghent, Mechelen, Liège? It is to this largely ignored page of the history of painting in these regions, in this case, that this thesis is devoted. The subject was essential for two reasons: in fallow land, it was awaiting an in-depth study which would fill a historiographical void, but it was also justified in that, on a larger scale, it was likely to add to the global understanding and appreciation of the artistic fact of the Baroque period in the space of the ancient Netherlands. The chronological milestones, from the start, were dictated by the historical framework itself, first of all that of the post quem terminus of 1566, the year of the iconoclastic outbreak that saw the image breakers leave behind the figurative heritage of the city. that ruins and fragments, that also of the terminus ante quem of 1709, when after forty-two years of the French regime following the War of Devolution, the city of Scald once again joined the bosom of the Netherlands, under Austrian governance now . The party adopted, however, had to be as broad as possible. It was important to avoid the trap of a narrowing which would have led to considering only the production of local artists, ignoring everything of the pictorial landscape made up of the many imported works of which we can legitimately assume that they will not have been without influencing the painters of Tournai. The approach, moreover, had to start from a corpus as complete as possible to interrogate the works themselves, but it had to simultaneously explore the documentation, the literary sources in this case of the old descriptions, and especially the works themselves. archives, including those of the revolutionary period relating to the seizures made in Tournai in 1794 and 1795. Admittedly, the city lost a considerable part of this written heritage, destroyed in the fire following the bombardment of May 1940, but many are the documents which had been exploited and edited by scholars and historians of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Above all, two very important funds remained to be explored, that of revolutionary seizures at the National Archives in Paris and that which, in Tournai, is the only one to have escaped destruction, from the chapter archives, little studied for these periods and largely unknown, including the he documentary contribution has proved essential here.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 25, 2022 - 2:44:57 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, May 26, 2022 - 3:48:37 AM

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Nathalie Fraquet. La peinture à Tournai de la crise iconoclaste de 1566 à la fin du régime français en 1709. Art et histoire de l'art. Université Polytechnique Hauts-de-France; Institut national des sciences appliquées Hauts-de-France, 2022. Français. ⟨NNT : 2022UPHF0001⟩. ⟨tel-03678634⟩

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