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Linearization of algebraic structures with operads and polynomial functors : Quadratic equivalences and the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula for 2-step nilpotent varieties

Abstract : The aim of this work consists of establishing the foundations and first steps of a research project which aims at a new understanding and generalization of the classical Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula with a conceptual approach, and its main application in group theory: refining a result of Mal'cev adapting the classical Lie correspondence to abstract groups, Lazard proved that the category of n-divisible n-step nilpotent groups is equivalent with the category of n-step nilpotent Lie algebras over the coefficient ring Z[1/2,…,1/n]. Generalizations to other algebraic structures than groups were obtained in the literature first for several varieties of loops (in particular Moufang, Bruck and Bol loops), and finally for all loops in recent work of Mostovoy, Pérez-Izquierdo and Shestakov. They invoke other types of algebras replacing Lie algebras in the respective context, namely Mal'cev algebras related with Moufang loops, Lie triple systems related with Bruck loops, Bol algebras with Bol algebras and finally Sabinin algebras with arbitrary loops. In each case, the associated type of algebras can be viewed as a linearization of the non-linear structure given by a given type of loops. This situation motivates a research program initiated by M. Hartl, namely of exhibiting suitable linearizations of all non-linear algebraic structures satisfying suitable conditions, namely all semiabelian varieties (of universal algebras, in the sense of universal algebra or of Lawvere). In fact, Hartl associated with any semi-abelian category C a multi-right exact (and hence multi-linear) functor operad on its abelian core. In the special case where C is a variety, this functor operad is even multicolimit preserving and by specialization is equivalent with an operad in abelian groups; the algebra type encoded by this operad provides a linearization of the given variety. Indeed, for each of the above-mentioned varieties of loops this algebra type coincides (over rational coefficients) with the one exhibited in the literature. These constructions and results are based on a new commutator theory in semi-abelian categories which itself relies on a calculus of functors in the framework of semi-abelian categories, both developed by Hartl in partial collaboration with B. Loiseau and T. Van der Linden. Now the project mentioned at the beginning constitutes the next major goal in this emerging general theory of linearization of algebraic structures: to generalize the Lazard equivalence and Baker- Campbell-Hausdorff formula to the context of semi-abelian varieties, and to deduce a way of explicitly computing the operad AbOp(C) from a given presentation of the variety C (more precisely, the operad obtained from AbOp(C) by tensoring its term of arity n with Z[1/2,…,1/n]). In the classical example of groups this would amount to deducing the structure of the Lie operad directly from the usual group axioms.
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Thibault Defourneau. Linearization of algebraic structures with operads and polynomial functors : Quadratic equivalences and the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula for 2-step nilpotent varieties. Algebraic Topology [math.AT]. Université de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambresis, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017VALE0024⟩. ⟨tel-03461727⟩

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